To mark the 80th anniversary of Soviet deportations of Poles from occupied territories, newly released testimonies make harrowing reading.
Tribute was paid in the eastern Polish city of Lublin on Sunday to Poles expelled from the former eastern borderlands and deported to Siberia by the Soviet authorities. The Lublin ceremonies marked the 80th anniversary of mass deportations.
Along with the cold Valerjan Romanovski braved wolves and frozen roads as he cycled across the man-killing wilderness of Siberia.
Buried with his weapon and golden ornaments, the warrior discovered by archaeologists from Jagiellonian University in Kraków was found in an untouched grave in an area known for both its rich burial sites and notorious grave-robbing.
The failure of the insurrection brought an even tighter grip on Polish territory by Russia.
Fleeing Stalin’s terror, Maria eventually arrived in Iran, a land which she said was blessed with proper beds and good and plentiful food, two of life’s essentials denied to her by Stalin’s regime.